Focusing on different research aspects, the MIMY project is structured into ten work packages which are closely interlinked with each other.
WP1-3 will focus on the concepts and methodology, on the analysis of the macro indicators of migration and integration, and will explore the contextual, historical, political, and policy-related factors that create vulnerabilities in young migrants’ lives. WP4-7 are the main qualitative empirical work packages centring on case studies in the different consortium countries. WP8 will synthesise the scientific results and explore possible replications of the findings for other localities in Europe. WP9 will focus on the dissemination, WP10 on the project management of MIMY.
- Concepts & methodology
Work package 1 “Concepts & methodology” focuses on liquid integration and differentiated embedding, building on the existing knowledge on migration, integration, migrant agency, vulnerability, resilience, resistance, negotiation and survival. The theoretical framework of MIMY has at its center a new way to define the concept of integration, which stems from a radically processual perspective. The innovative concept of “liquid integration” suggests that the integration of young migrants should not be understood as a fixed, static or start-end phenomenon but as a dynamic and complex process of change and adaptation which remains open ended. LI recognizes the complex contemporary system of instabilities, constant changes and adjustments occurring both of on an individual and institutional level and influenced by spatial, social, structural and temporal factors. In this liquid system of interrelated structural shifts, increased uncertainty and instability, the LI framework is particularly relevant to capture the experiences of young people going through the migration-integration process as well as the transition into adulthood. Thus, by adopting the Liquid Integration approach to the integration processes of young migrants in vulnerable conditions, MIMY contributes to a much-needed exploration of the multi-level, long-term, and biographical effects of the ongoing system and individual transformations through the experience of migration
- Quantitative overview on youth migration
Work package 2 “Quantitative (statistical) overview on youth migration” gives the macro picture of migration and integration within the chosen case studies. Moreover, it will aim to “improve the knowledge base on the socio-economic effects of migration” which is hard to analyse for young migrants in vulnerable conditions. However, young migrants’ social and economic effects in general will be a part of the analysis. A quantitative overview on youth migration has been developed to provide a perspective on the socio-economic context. In particular statistical data on young migrants living in Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden, UK, Hungary, Poland, Romania has been analysed. A macro-data inventory was compiled to better understand the country characteristics/ opportunity structures for the integration young third country nationals (D2.1 ). A report was produced to describe and compare the dimension, characteristics and dynamics of youth migration to Europe as well as to provide an overall perspective on the socio-economic integration of young migrants in European countries and on the perception of European citizens on migrants. Overall, a national-level (macro) data analysis revealed that young non-EU migrants face more difficulties than their EU peers in several fields, including labour market (e.g. lower employment rates), education (e.g. higher levels of school early leavers) and social inclusion (e.g. higher risk of poverty). Similarly, an analysis of the dimensions of vulnerability using individual (micro-level) data has revealed that non-EU immigrant youth is significantly more exposed to vulnerable conditions and especially to multiple vulnerabilities than young people with no immigrant background. Finally, the analysis of mainstream society’s attitudes towards immigrants has revealed that overall European citizens seem to see as many advantages as disadvantages to migration but there are very significant differences within Europe (D2.2). A final report, statistically explored the intensity of the relations between youth migration and social and economic conditions in European countries in the wake of increasing number of asylum seeking youth after 2015 in the EU. This study found that while in the European countries receiving high numbers of migrants, social protection expenditures are slightly affected by the share of asylum seekers in young population, reflecting the efforts to implement the social protection and integration policies, overall, the arrival of asylum-seeking youth had no impact on youth unemployment rates and on education systems’ performance (D2.3).
- Context & policy approaches for young vulnerable migrants
Work package 3 “Context & policy approaches for young vulnerable migrants” gives the historical perspective of integration policies, taking into account MIMY target groups: young migrants who are in vulnerable conditions for various reasons (social and economic deprivation, non-integration, disintegration, having a traumatic past, forced migration, being stateless, being a refugee, being exploited, smuggled or trafficked, being exploited in the labour market etc.). Additionally, during the first project year, integration policies (labour market, education, health, civil rights, social welfare, housing, family policies, etc.) in the EU were examined, with a special focus on the countries of the MIMY consortium. The resulting report provided a comprehensive overview of the historical development and current European and national integration policy frames, measures and governance, which revealed, among other findings, a limited Europeanisation of integration policies, despite the importance of the EU as an actor and as a force for harmonization of integration policies between countries. Additionally, the report noted how, outside the influence of the EU policy agenda, in most MIMY countries there has been a convergence of integration policies through implementation of civic integration policies. (D3.1). This overview of integration policies was complemented by a second report reviewing previous national literature on past experiences of vulnerable migrants, from which certain “areas of concern” emerged where migrant youth vulnerability is likely to transpire/be produced (e.g. impact of legal status, accommodation, language acquisition and education, labour markets, migrant health, support structures and local participation, discrimination and racism).
- Migrant youth between vulnerability & resilience
Work package 4 “Migrant youth between vulnerability & resilience” involves interviews with young migrants in the chosen localities in each case study. The contextual, historical, biographical, and policy related contexts will be revealed via these interviews. This will further include peer-researchers to empower the young migrants enabling greater access and a deeper qualitative engagement than academics alone could achieve.
- Effects of local actors on migration & integration dynamics
Work package 5 “Effects of local actors on migration & integration dynamics” focuses on the local actors’ role and will map the provision of local services to understand whether they meet the needs of migrant young people in vulnerable conditions. Local dynamics of integration will be further investigated through qualitative research with local stakeholders and migrants from previous waves of migration. Focusing on the key pressing political issues faced by non-EU migrants within the EU, MIMY selected 18 local case studies, two in each of the nine countries involved in the consortium (Luxembourg, Germany, United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway, Italy, Poland, Romania, and Hungary). The two case studies per country represent contrasting cases (for example in terms of urban and rural contexts, centre-periphery, and old industrial areas compared to more dynamic cities). A first mapping of local service provisions within the two case study areas was conducted by each research partner to identify services and organisations who play a key role in supporting the processes of integration of the young migrants (WP5).
- Assessing the critical role of the local population
Work package 6 “Assessing the critical role of the local population” focuses on the role of local populations with regard to the integration of young migrants. It studies the attitudes and practices of local populations towards and their interaction with young migrants and will thus define the main spheres of social, cultural, economic and psychological integration. First stakeholder interviews have been organised in the 18 case studies to examine effects of local actors and to assess the critical role of the local population(s). A report on the conceptualisation of the local population(s) has been published, highlighting, on the one hand, the vital role of the local in studying the integration of young vulnerable migrants as the setting of their ‘everyday lives’ and, on the other hand, the significance of the subjective perspectives of individuals on their relationship with the local in its varied nuances. (D6.1).
- Laboratories of reality: participatory & action research
Work package 7 “Laboratories of reality: participatory & action research” discusses the results obtained in the frame of the other work packages with migrants´ advisory group and young migrants in vulnerable conditions. To facilitate the discussion and the exchange between the actors, art-based events and workshops will be organised.
- Synthesis, synergies, replications & impact assessment
Work package 8 “Synthesis, synergies, replications & impact assessment” summarises the synergies between the work packages, compare the case studies (parallels, similarities and differences) and pave the way for further comparative publications (comparing local, national and supranational contexts, integration policies and policy transfer). This work package will also finalise the Delphi method and analyse the effect of changes such as Brexit, local legislative and national contextual changes in the case study countries. It will also ensure the cooperation with completed and on-going Horizon 2020 projects on migrants, youth, integration and ICT-enabled solutions.
- Innovation management: communication, dissemination & exploitation
Work package 9 “Innovation management: communication, dissemination & exploitation” identifies, manages, disseminates, exploits and protects knowledge, and coordinates internal and external communication throughout the project.
- Project management & scientific coordination
Work package 10 “Project management & scientific coordination” safeguards optimal administrative, financial, contractual as well as technical consortium management.